Help us: Donate
Follow us on:
×

Menu

Back

Glutathione Extends Lifespan in Mice by 24%

This compound seems to be valuable in controlling oxidative stress.

Cat and mouseCat and mouse
 

In a study conducted by scientists from Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, supplementation of glutathione had a drastic effect on the lifespan of wild-type mice, both male and female [1].

Dangerous species

Oxidative stress happens when the delicate balance between the production and degradation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is lost. This can be caused by various stressors, such as UV radiation, but also by aging.

ROS are byproducts of normal oxygen metabolism, which, like many chemical processes, is indispensable for life but also produces toxic waste (although ROS also plays some beneficial roles) [2]. The body has robust anti-ROS protections in place, which is why ROS levels in cells are low and stable in youth. Alas, all our defense mechanisms slowly decay with time, which can be considered the essence of aging.

ROS accumulation is not considered a hallmark of aging, but it deeply affects other hallmarks, such as mitochondrial dysfunction and genomic instability, because accumulated ROS interfere with chemical processes all over the body.

Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant intracellular antioxidant, the backbone of natural defenses against ROS. It is a tripeptide composed of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid. GSH levels decline with age, so supplementing it could plausibly affect other processes of aging.

This can be achieved with GlyNAC, a combination of two GSH precursors, glycine and N-acetylcystein. GlyNAC has already been an object of several studies. The same group that is behind this new paper has previously shown that continuous GlyNAC supplementation alleviates mitochondrial dysfunction and improves mitophagy (degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria), nutrient sensing, and genome stability in humans [3]. It also reverses premature aging in people with HIV [4].

Why would the group move from human to mouse trials? As the authors explain, humans are so long-lived that it makes studying any intervention’s direct effect on lifespan virtually impossible. To be able to do this, you need species with a much shorter lifespan, such as mice.

Best-in-class results

The researchers ran two studies simultaneously, one dedicated solely to determining the effect of GlyNAC on lifespan and the second one on various other parameters. Importantly, the scientists used wild-type mice, rather than mice genetically engineered for accelerated aging. The 32 mice in this study were equally divided between the study group and the control group. At the age of 65 weeks, which is mid-life by mouse standards, 8 males and 8 females started receiving GlyNAC with food. Supplementation continued until the mice died of age-related diseases. This study is slightly larger than other influential “proof of concept” studies, which are typically conducted on about a dozen mice.

Mice on GlyNAC lived, on average, 24% longer than the controls: 129 vs. 104 weeks. This rivals some of the best life extension results ever achieved in mice. Importantly, the effect was equally strong in males and females, contrary to some other promising geroprotective compounds that are sex-specific. The graph shows an unmistakable shift in the survival curve:

Glynac

Bring them all back!

The second study analyzed the effect of GlyNAC supplementation on GSH levels, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, mitophagy, nutrient sensing, and genomic damage in the hearts, livers, and kidneys of old mice.

First, it found what we already knew: GSH concentration in the old animals was 65% to 72% lower. GlyNAC supplementation was able to bring GSH levels back to normal. GSH synthesis, substantially slowed by age, also bounced back as a result of GlyNAC supplementation.

Levels of TBARS, an oxidative stress marker, were around twice as high in old untreated mice than young mice. Here again, GlyNAC did wonders, bringing TBARS back to almost youthful levels.

In all the other key areas, mitochondrial function, mitophagy, nutrient sensing (measured by SIRT3 levels), and genomic stability (measured by phosphorylated histone protein H2AX), the results were equally impressive: the markers bounced back almost to the levels observed in young mice. Such wall-to-wall positive results are rarely seen in a study.

Conclusion

This study might put glutathione on the list of the most promising life-extending molecules. GSH is known to be safe and is already marketed as a supplement, although more research is needed to confirm its efficacy in humans. The results of this study probably warrant GSH inclusion in the ITP program, which tests various potentially life-prolonging compounds in mice in three different institutions, providing an especially robust testing environment. It would also be interesting to see the results of combining GlyNAC with other known life-prolonging interventions such as caloric restriction.

Heroes banner

Literature

[1] Kumar, P., Osahon, O. W., & Sekhar, R. V. (2022). GlyNAC (Glycine and N-Acetylcysteine) Supplementation in Mice Increases Length of Life by Correcting Glutathione Deficiency, Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Abnormalities in Mitophagy and Nutrient Sensing, and Genomic Damage. Nutrients, 14(5), 1114.

[2] Santos, A. L., Sinha, S., & Lindner, A. B. (2018). The good, the bad, and the ugly of ROS: new insights on aging and aging-related diseases from eukaryotic and prokaryotic model organisms. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity2018.

[3] Kumar, P., Liu, C., Hsu, J. W., Chacko, S., Minard, C., Jahoor, F., & Sekhar, R. V. (2021). Glycine and N-acetylcysteine (GlyNAC) supplementation in older adults improves glutathione deficiency, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, genotoxicity, muscle strength, and cognition: Results of a pilot clinical trial. Clinical and translational medicine11(3), e372.

[4] Kumar, P., Liu, C., Suliburk, J. W., Minard, C. G., Muthupillai, R., Chacko, S., … & Sekhar, R. V. (2020). Supplementing glycine and N-acetylcysteine (GlyNAC) in aging HIV patients improves oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance, genotoxicity, strength, and cognition: results of an open-label clinical trial. Biomedicines8(10), 390.

CategoryNews
About the author
Arkadi Mazin

Arkadi Mazin

Arkadi is a seasoned journalist and op-ed author with a passion for learning and exploration. His interests span from politics to science and philosophy. Having studied economics and international relations, he is particularly interested in the social aspects of longevity and life extension. He strongly believes that life extension is an achievable and noble goal that has yet to take its rightful place on the very top of our civilization’s agenda – a situation he is eager to change.
  1. rayamc
    March 24, 2022

    THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR THIS ARTICLE AND I AM SCREAMING WITH JOY TO HAVE READ IT!!!!!!
    Since and before the onset of the COVID-19 Pandemic, I have been on a quest to understanding my body’s decline due to aging.
    While singing in Germany many years ago,the doctors recommended L- Acytel Cysteine for Asthma and other related respiratory conditions.
    I was then and I am still convinced that that particular amino acid, for me ,has prolonged my life.
    COVID-19 made my asthma worse. Therefore, I’ve done more research which has led me amino acid supplements and their ability to prolong life by reversing the aging process in humans.
    To shorten my gushing about how much I feel, let me say thank you once again.

  2. Alan Everett
    March 24, 2022

    It would have been nice to have included the (doi) number to make it easier to look up the references. There are least eight or nine different theories of Aging and for this body of research to advance one would need to desscribe how the glyNAC fits into one of those theories or alternatively propose a new Theory of Aging. I guess you’re saying that the old multiple insult to the body is what causes aging and that glyNAC removes one of those insults from ROS. Appears to me glyNAC extends healthspan which is significant.

  3. jballantine1938
    March 24, 2022

    Interesting article FDA is pursuing a ban on the sale of NAC supplements, a-precursor to Glutathione.

    • micromegas61
      March 30, 2022

      You’re partly correct. While not formally banned, NAC has become more difficult to find on the retail market. For instance AMAZON announced that, in voluntary cooperation with the FDA, that it would cease selling it last year (2021).
      Personally, I think that this “informal banning” of NAC is, as in the case of Ivermectin, just a backdoor means of forcing the public away from inexpensive alternatives to BigPharma’s COVID vaccines.
      NAC is still available as of today, one just has to look a little harder for a vendor.

Write a comment:

*

Your email address will not be published.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.