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Trodusquemine Reverses Heart Disease in Mouse Study


Atherosclerosis is the number one killer in the world, and science is working on solutions to combat this age-related disease. A new mouse study has shown that the drug trodusquemine can melt away the accumulated arterial plaques that lead to heart attacks and strokes.

What is Atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is an age-related disease in which toxic, oxidized cholesterol deposits in the bloodstream produce inflammation in arterial walls. This causes macrophages to swarm to these fatty deposits to clear up this toxic waste.

Unfortunately, our macrophages are not as robust as we would like them to be, and over time, they gobble up so much waste that they either die immediately or become senescent and turn into foam cells.

Foam cells are dysfunctional macrophages that increase inflammation and have become embedded in arterial walls. This rising inflammation works like an alarm system and summons more macrophages to the injury site, and they also succumb to the same fate over time.

Another problem is that, as we age, the immune system declines, and, again, this causes macrophages to increasingly become dysfunctional and stop working properly. They increasingly favor an inflammatory behavior over a healing one.

Ultimately, this build-up of dead and dying macrophages is the basis of the plaques that lead to atherosclerosis. They build up and eventually rupture, causing clots to break off, which leads to heart attacks and strokes.

All humans have some level of atherosclerosis, regardless of lifestyle and diet. As you age, you start to develop fatty deposits inside your arteries. If you live long enough, these deposits will become a problem.

The research

A research team from the University of Aberdeen showed that a single dose of trodusquemine was able to completely reverse the effects of the disease in just a single dose in mouse models of heart disease[1].

In the mouse study, model mice with atherosclerosis had less plaque in their arteries when they had regular doses of trodusquemine or just a single dose. The drug works by blocking an enzyme called tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 1  (PTP1B), which is normally elevated in people with obesity, diabetes and inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis, allergic lung inflammation, and diabetic foot ulcers.

The researchers discovered that blocking PTP1B also stimulated the protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This is one of the central regulators of cellular and organismal metabolism in cells, and it is activated when intracellular ATP (cell energy) lowers.

AMPK plays key roles in regulating growth and reprogramming metabolism, and it is connected to cellular processes such as autophagy and cell polarity (like a cellular program which determines cell behavior). AMPK stimulation is also similar to the effects of exercise and reduces chronic inflammation.

Trodusquemine is already in trials

Trodusquemine is currently in phase 1 trials for breast cancer, but this is the first time the drug has been tested in animal models of atherosclerosis. So far, the results have been quite impressive and showed that a single dose of the drug appears to completely reverse the effects of atherosclerosis.

The next step will be to move to human clinical trials to see if this drug can improve patient outcome in humans with atherosclerosis. Given that a number of other phase 1 trials for trodusquemine have been conducted, this may contribute to supporting evidence of safety and potentially speed up the process.

The study shows that it not only reverses atherosclerosis but can also reduce the build-up of the fatty deposits that lead to the formation of plaques. If the same effects are observed in human trials, this could mean the drug could be an effective preventative as well as a treatment for atherosclerosis.


The approach here appears to slow the pace at which macrophages arrive at the injury site only to be overwhelmed and contributing to the very plaques they are trying to remove. The researchers here demonstrate that by blocking PTP1B, they can reduce inflammation and block the signals that summon more macrophages to the injury site.

This has the effect of breaking the vicious cycle of inflammation, macrophage arrival, and macrophage death enough to allow natural mechanisms to reduce the plaques already in situ. This has the effect of reversing the development of atherosclerosis.

The damage repair approach to aging makes removing these accumulated plaques one of the key things we need to do in order to combat age-related diseases. For example, SENS aims to find bacterial enzymes capable of digesting these fatty deposits, and these enzymes can then form the basis for drug development. Other groups are testing adjusting macrophage behavior so that they facilitate healing rather than inflammation.

The bottom line here is that all these techniques are viable, and each is a potential path to achieving the goal of removing plaques. Ultimately, it is irrelevant which approach is used to do this; the only thing that matters here is that it works. The end result is what is important, not how it’s achieved. The usual caveats apply here; this is a mouse trial, and we will need to see if the results translate during clinical trials. If they do, then this could be a solution to the biggest killer disease in the world.

Finally, if you are reading this and are interested in being included in future clinical trials please visit the government portal for clinical trials periodically to see if there are trials in your area. 


[1] Thompson, D., Morrice, N., Grant, L., Le Sommer, S., Lees, E. K., Mody, N., … & Delibegovic, M. (2017). Pharmacological inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B protects against atherosclerotic plaque formation in the LDLR−/− mouse model of atherosclerosis. Clinical Science, 131(20), 2489-2501.

About the author

Steve Hill

Steve serves on the LEAF Board of Directors and is the Editor in Chief, coordinating the daily news articles and social media content of the organization. He is an active journalist in the aging research and biotechnology field and has to date written over 600 articles on the topic, interviewed over 100 of the leading researchers in the field, hosted livestream events focused on aging, as well as attending various medical industry conferences. His work has been featured in H+ magazine, Psychology Today, Singularity Weblog, Standpoint Magazine, Swiss Monthly, Keep me Prime, and New Economy Magazine. Steve is one of three recipients of the 2020 H+ Innovator Award and shares this honour with Mirko Ranieri – Google AR and Dinorah Delfin – Immortalists Magazine. The H+ Innovator Award looks into our community and acknowledges ideas and projects that encourage social change, achieve scientific accomplishments, technological advances, philosophical and intellectual visions, author unique narratives, build fascinating artistic ventures, and develop products that bridge gaps and help us to achieve transhumanist goals. Steve has a background in project management and administration which has helped him to build a united team for effective fundraising and content creation, while his additional knowledge of biology and statistical data analysis allows him to carefully assess and coordinate the scientific groups involved in the project.
  1. November 9, 2017

    If I was one of the (breast cancer) phase 1 trial participants, I’d get a cardiac CT scan or MRI of the major arteries. The results possibly could indicate whether I was getting the real thing (trodusquemine) or the placebo. The [continued] presence of arterial plaque would not be conclusive, but an observed reduction in plaque definitely would, and we would get a preliminary positive indication of efficacy.

  2. January 24, 2018

    I have the same heart disease discribed above. How do I find out about trails for trodusquemine? Please send me any information to

    [email protected]

  3. January 30, 2018

    I have blocked arteries (3) could you give me any information regarding human trials of trodusquemine , I am 50 yrs old and I’m looking for an alternative to bypass surgery

    • March 7, 2018

      Alan, have you come across any further information regarding this drug? I’m also very interested in human trials. If you’ve come across anything could you please email me at

      [email protected]

  4. February 27, 2018

    I am interested to take part in any trials for trodusquemine as I have
    blocked arteries in my legs,
    could you send me any
    information please.

    • February 28, 2018

      Hi Gail, we are not involved in organizing clinical trials we just report on the progress in the field. To find out what trials are happening and which ones are enrolling visit

  5. March 7, 2018

    Anybody have any info regarding human trials with this drug? Please email me at:

    [email protected]

  6. March 10, 2018

    Please send me infomation
    about Trodusquemine as I
    suffer with blocked arteries in my legs.

  7. March 10, 2018

    Please send me information
    About Trodusquemine I
    have blocked aeteries in my legs

  8. April 7, 2018

    Please advise of your resources for this article. There were a nimber of other similar articles published in Nov 2017 but all my research has been fruitless in finding any information on clinical trials and/or who is currently conducting them. These types of articles create a lot of hope for people and they should be provided with contact and referral information to learn more.

    • April 7, 2018

      Hi Leslie, this article is a commentary on a mouse experiment which we link to and cite at page bottom. It is certainly not our intention to create hype but rather to report on some interesting research that we hope could lead to a solution to heart disease.

      For details on possible clinical trials please visit

      • June 1, 2018

        More interesting is how the mice specimens develop their atherosclerosis for the study. Often lab animals are given mycotoxins to cause the disease to be treated and studied. Which means they have a cause of heart disease.

  9. May 9, 2018

    TRODUSQUEMİNE Tip 2 diyabet için ilâç olarak kullanılıyorsa piyasada neden yok. Kâlp damarımda 2 adet stent takılı, daha tıkalı damarlarımda var, ateroskloroz için nereden temin edebilirim?

    • November 10, 2018

      Naptınız uyguladiniz mi

  10. June 22, 2019

    I have Atherosclerosis and would be grateful if someone could tell me how and where to participate in the Trodusquemine trials.

  11. massey5nz
    June 3, 2020

    I have Atherosclerosis and would be grateful if someone could tell me how and where to participate in the Trodusquemine trials.

  12. patjonesgto
    July 6, 2020

    Any way to participate in trials ?

  13. bishop7
    August 31, 2020

    I have block arteries. I am on blood pressure meds and statin drug. I would like to participate in any programs of this drug Trodusquemine. Please contact me @my email address provided.

    • jmuniz1221
      September 30, 2020

      I have asteoclorosis and I take statins and blood pressure pills how can I find out more about this drug to treat my condition l would truly be grateful if someone tells me more of this drug

  14. bnlucas
    September 2, 2020

    I am interested in any trials for this product!
    I have been told i have large amounts for calcification in my arteries

  15. cdnretired51
    October 12, 2020

    I want to know more about this trial. Please email me the infomation. Thanks

  16. rickabryant64
    October 13, 2020

    Like to know about trials

  17. slemonslucas1
    November 22, 2021

    Info. on trodusquemine please. Where can I get/try it ?
    Thank you

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