NAD+ levels in the mitochondria decline with age, and this is a proximate cause of reduced mitochondrial function. Approaches to increasing levels of NAD+ in aging cells have been shown to improve metabolism and mitochondrial function in mice, but the evidence is mixed in humans for there to be any meaningful effect on age-related conditions. The common approaches to NAD+ upregulation, meaning supplementation with derivatives of vitamin B3, such as nicotinamide riboside, are about as effective as structured exercise programs in increasing NAD+ levels.
There is the suspicion that taking this shortcut – without adding all of the other metabolic effects of exercise – could increase the harms done by problem cells in the aging body, such as senescent cells and cancerous cells, by allowing them greater activity. The evidence is sparse for this to be the case, but it is a concern amongst researchers. The research noted here adds a little more weight to the concern side of the scales.
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